- General aspects including genesis of life, cell-development, structure and functions of different components, genetic control. Transport through cell membrane. Basic evolutionary processes leading to cell differentiation and organisation into tissues. Basic functional organisation of human body. Homeostasis as the basic aim of physiological organisation.
- Systemic physiology also includes applied aspects of all the following systems:
GASTRO INTESTINAL SYSTEM
Principles of balanced diet. Gastrointestinal tract movements, secretions: composition, function, mechanism of regulation of secretion of Saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile, succus entericus etc. defecation.
BLOOD AND CIRCULATION
Blood volume, its measurement and regulation. Blood depots; Blood reaction & its maintenance. Composition of blood & functions of its constituents. Hemostasis, Blood groups. Bone marrow, Origin & fate of formed elements; Hemoglobin; its chemistry, compounds & system, Spleen, lymphoreticular system etc., Immunity, transplantation of organs, tissue rejection.
Characteristics of cardiac muscle; valves – structure & its action, Origin & transmission of cardiac impulse, Heart block, Sounds, Electrocardiogram; Cardiac output, its measurement & physiological variation. Regulation of Heart activity, Structure of blood vessels, course & circulation of blood, nutrition of heart & coronary circulation, Rate of blood flow-velocity, circulation time, Regulation of peripheral circulation-arterial, capillary & venous. Echocardiography, Dynamics of cardiovascular system, Histamine & its role. Pulmonary, Hepatic, Renal circulation, Tissue fluid (extracellular and intracellular).
Respiratory organs. Lung compliance; Mechanics of respiratory movements, Lung volumes & capacities; Spirometry. Compositions of inspired & expired and alveolar air; Gases in the
blood and air & their tensions. Mechanisms of external & internal respiration, Transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide in blood. Control of respiration; Apnea, Dyspnoea, Hypoxia, Anoxia, Cyanosis, asphyxia & periodic breathing. Neural and Chemical control of Respiration. Effects of high & low atmospheric pressures of respiration on other systems.
Structure of Kidney & mechanism of urine formation, Urinary output, its physiological variation & composition. Functions of kidney, role in regulation of water balance and reaction of blood. Mechanism of micturition, hormone excreted in urine & their significance, Dialysis, hormones.
Integument-skin; Body surface temperature, core temperature; regulation, hypothermia, hibernation; environmental pollution, ionising radiation-effects etc. aviation physiology, High altitude & under water physiology, Hyperbaric environment, space physiology.
Various types of muscles in the body & their special features, Changes of excitation, nature of contractile process & factors influencing muscular contractions, Neuromuscular functions.
Neuron & Neuroglia, nerve fibres; its excitation & propagation of nerve impulse, changes undergone in a nerve during stimulation. Electrotonus. Wallerian degeneration, Reaction of degeneration & their features, General features of nervous system, Neuronal transmission, Synapses & its special features, Reflex action & its characteristics, Classification of sensations, receptor organs & pathways of cutaneous & deep sensations, Structure & functions of spinal cord, its roots & brainstem. Reticular formation; Functions of Cerebellum, Corpus striatum, Thalamus, hypothalamus, Cerebral cortex-its structure, connections & localisation of functions, all Higher functions, Electro-encephalogram, Muscle tone, regulation of postural tonus & mechanism of co-ordinate movements, Non-auditory labyrinth; physiology of speech. Conditioned reflexes; sleep, Autonomic nervous system & functions, Physiology of chemical transmission, Cerebrospinal fluid-composition, formation, circulation & functions.
ENDOCRINES & REPRODUCTION:
Structure & functions of various endocrine organs, Primary & secondary sex characters, Andrology-physiology of testes. Menstruation, ovulation, fertilisation & formation of the germinal layers, Formation & role of placenta, Fetal respiration & circulation. Mammary glands and lactation, Physiological changes during pregnancy; Principles of contraception, Fertility controls. Neonatal physiology.
EYE: Structure of Eye and Functions of various parts, Nutrition of eye and intraocular fluid, Field of vision and mechanism of accommodation. Errors of refraction, Visual Path and ocular reflexes, Neurophysiology of vision Color vision, Binocular visions, after images, ocular fields, refractive media, Movements of eyeball.
EAR: Auditory apparatus, Labyrinthine conduction of sound waves and Mechanism of hearing, Auditory pathway, tests for hearing, audiometer.
TASTE AND SMELL: Structure, distribution and functions of receptors, Mechanism of stimulation and their pathways.
APPLIED & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY:
Applied aspects of all systems, Growth and development, Hemorrhage and shock, Muscular exercise and its Effects, Aging, Maintenance of pH, water and electrolytes balance.
- GASTRO INTESTINAL SYSTEM